It is also used quite frequently in the business world to imply a two-sided, mutually contingent and rewarding process theory of negotiation pdf trans
It is also used quite frequently in the business world to imply a two-sided, mutually contingent and rewarding process theory of negotiation pdf transactions or simply exchange. He defined social exchange as the exchange of activity, tangible or intangible, and more or less rewarding or costly, between at least two persons. After Homans founded the theory, other theorists continued to write about it, particularly Peter M.
Emerson, who in addition to Homans are generally thought of as the major developers of the exchange perspective within sociology. Homans’ work emphasized the individual behavior of actors in interaction with one another. Although there are various modes of exchange, Homans centered his studies on dyadic exchange. John Thibaut and Harold Kelley are recognized for focusing their studies within the theory on the psychological concepts, the dyad and small group. Success proposition: When one finds they are rewarded for their actions, they tend to repeat the action. Stimulus proposition: The more often a particular stimulus has resulted in a reward in the past, the more likely it is that a person will respond to it. The more often in the recent past a person has received a particular reward, the less valuable any further unit of that reward becomes.
Homans focused on reinforcement principles which presuppose individuals base their next social move on past experiences. Blau’s utilitarian focus encouraged the theorist to look forward, as in what they anticipated the reward would be in regards to their next social interaction. Blau felt that if individuals focused too much on the psychological concepts within the theory, they would refrain from learning the developing aspects of social exchange. Blau emphasized technical economic analysis whereas Homans concentrated more on the psychology of instrumental behavior. Richard Emerson’s early work on the theory intertwined with both Homans and Blau’s ideas. Homans believed that social exchange theory was based on reinforcement principles. According to Emerson, Exchange is not a theory, but a framework from which other theories can converge and be compared to structural functionalism.
Emerson’s perspective was similar to Blau’s since they both focused on the relationship power had with the exchange process. Emerson says that social exchange theory is an approach in sociology that is described for simplicity as an economic analysis of noneconomic social situations. Exchange theory brings a quasi-economic form of analysis into those situations. These are the basic forms of interaction when two or more actors have something of value to each other, and they have to decide whether to exchange and in what amounts. To him, the meaning of individual self-interest is a combination of economic and psychological needs.
Fulfilling self-interest is often common within the economic realm of the social exchange theory where competition and greed can be common. Thibaut and Kelley see the mutual interdependence of persons as the central problem for the study of social behavior. They also highlighted social implications of different forms of interdependence such as reciprocal control. According to their interdependence definition, outcomes are based on a combination of parties’ efforts and mutual and complementary arrangements. Social exchange theory views exchange as a social behavior that may result in both economic and social outcomes. Social exchange theory has been generally analyzed by comparing human interactions with the marketplace.
The study of the theory from the microeconomics perspective is attributed to Blau. Under his perspective every individual is trying to maximize his wins. Blau stated that once this concept is understood, it is possible to observe social exchanges everywhere, not only in market relations, but also in other social relations like friendship. Social exchange process brings satisfaction when people receive fair returns for their expenditures. The major difference between social and economic exchange is the nature of the exchange between parties. Neoclassic economic theory views the actor as dealing not with another actor but with a market and environmental parameters, such as market price.
Unlike economic exchange, the elements of social exchange are quite varied and cannot be reduced to a single quantitative exchange rate. Simple social exchange models assume that rewards and costs drive relationship decisions. Both parties in a social exchange take responsibility for one another and depend on each other. Costs can be time, money, effort etc. Rewards can be sense of acceptance, support, and companionship etc. As with everything dealing with the social exchange theory, it has as its outcome satisfaction and dependence of relationships. The social-exchange perspective argues that people calculate the overall worth of a particular relationship by subtracting its costs from the rewards it provides.