This is achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of
This is achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibers to be parallel with each other. When blending, the carding process combines the different fibres into a homogeneous mix. Sewing machine attachment handbook pdf cards also have rollers and systems designed to remove some vegetable matter contaminants from the wool.
Common to all carders is card clothing. Card clothing is made from a sturdy flexible backing in which closely spaced wire pins are embedded. The shape, length, diameter, and spacing of these wire pins are dictated by the card designer and the particular requirements of the application where the card cloth will be used. Carding machines are known as cards. Fibre may be carded by hand for hand spinning. At the turn of the eighteenth century, wool in England was being carded using pairs of hand cards, it was a two-stage process: ‘working’ with the cards opposed and ‘stripping’ where they are in parallel. England, invented two hand driven carding machines.
The first used a coat of wires on a flat table moved by foot pedals. On the second, a coat of wire slips was placed around a card which was then wrapped around a cylinder. From the 1780s, the carding machines were set up in mills in the north of England and mid-Wales. Priority was given to cotton but woollen fibres were being carded in Yorkshire in 1780. With woollen, two carding machines were used: the first or the scribbler opened and mixed the fibres, the second or the condenser mixed and formed the web. 11 card clothing factories and by 1893, it was generally accepted as the card cloth capital of the world, though by 2008 only two manufacturers of metallic and flexible card clothing remained in England, Garnett Wire Ltd. Son Ltd established in 1840.
In the 1890s, the town produced one-third of all hand and machine cards in North America. John and Arthur Slater, from Saddleworth went over to work with Slater in 1793. A 1780s scribbling mill would be driven by a water wheel. There were 170 scribbling mills around Leeds at that time. Modern machines are driven by belting from an electric motor or an overhead shaft via two pulleys. The cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, and is then taken to carding machines.
The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin. The carding machine consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. In a wider sense carding can refer to the four processes of willowing, lapping, carding and drawing. 2 inch in diameter, it can then be optionally combed, is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn.