Programming collective intelligence building smart web 2.0 applications pdf

According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data programming collective intelligence building smart web 2.0 applic

According to the W3C, “The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data programming collective intelligence building smart web 2.0 applications pdf be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries”. While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in industry, biology and human sciences research have already proven the validity of the original concept. Web to a Semantic Web. In 2013, more than four million Web domains contained Semantic Web markup.

In the following example, the text ‘Paul Schuster was born in Dresden’ on a Website will be annotated, connecting a person with their place of birth. URI should result in a document that offers further data about the given URI. RDF graphs, describing the URI, e. Dresden is a city in Germany, or that a person, in the sense of that URI, can be fictional. This enables automated agents to access the Web more intelligently and perform more tasks on behalf of users.

He defines the Semantic Web as “a web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines”. Many of the technologies proposed by the W3C already existed before they were positioned under the W3C umbrella. These are used in various contexts, particularly those dealing with information that encompasses a limited and defined domain, and where sharing data is a common necessity, such as scientific research or data exchange among businesses. A “Semantic Web”, which makes this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The Semantic Web is regarded as an integrator across different content, information applications and systems. It has applications in publishing, blogging, and many other areas.

Documents like mail messages, reports, and brochures are read by humans. Data, such as calendars, addressbooks, playlists, and spreadsheets are presented using an application program that lets them be viewed, searched and combined. 199, or that it is a consumer product. There is also no way to express that these pieces of information are bound together in describing a discrete item, distinct from other items perhaps listed on the page. HTML practice of markup following intention, rather than specifying layout details directly. But this practice falls short of specifying the semantics of objects such as items for sale or prices. The Semantic Web takes the solution further.

HTML describes documents and the links between them. RDF, OWL, and XML, by contrast, can describe arbitrary things such as people, meetings, or airplane parts. These technologies are combined in order to provide descriptions that supplement or replace the content of Web documents. The machine-readable descriptions enable content managers to add meaning to the content, i. Berners-Lee posits that if the past was document sharing, the future is data sharing. His answer to the question of “how” provides three points of instruction.