Obstetrics and gynecology for medical students pdf

This article is about the medical specialty. Prenatal care is important in screening for various complications of pregnancy. It gives an accurate risk

This article is about the medical specialty. Prenatal care is important in screening for various complications of pregnancy. It gives an accurate risk profile very early. A second blood screen at 15 to 20 obstetrics and gynecology for medical students pdf refines the risk more accurately.

This is an evolving standard of care in the United States. 35 or who reach 35 by mid pregnancy or who are at increased risk by family history or prior birth history. If positive, the woman receives IV penicillin or ampicillin while in labor—or, if she is allergic to penicillin, an alternative therapy, such as IV clindamycin or IV vancomycin. The safety of frequent ultrasound scanning has not be confirmed. Despite this, increasing numbers of women are choosing to have additional scans for no medical purpose, such as gender scans, 3D and 4D scans. 6, and the crown-rump length after week 6. Fetal screening is used to help assess the viability of the fetus, as well as congenital abnormalities.

5 is associated with increased lung maturity. The deleterious effects of thyroid dysfunction can also extend beyond pregnancy and delivery to affect neurointellectual development in the early life of the child. Demand for thyroid hormones is increased during pregnancy, and may cause a previously unnoticed thyroid disorder to worsen. However, when combined with an additional underlying hypercoagulable states, the risk of thrombosis or embolism may become substantial. Induction is a method of artificially or prematurely stimulating labour in a woman. This may cause massive internal bleeding. The cause is unknown, and markers are being sought to predict its development from the earliest stages of pregnancy.

The only treatment is to deliver the foetus. Women may still develop pre-eclampsia following delivery. The umbilical cord delivers before the presenting part of the foetus. If the foetus is not delivered within minutes, or the pressure taken off the cord, the foetus dies. It may happen during or after labour. Certain things must be kept in mind as the physician proceeds with the post-natal care.

General condition of the patient. If an episiotomy or a C-section was performed, check for the dressing. Follow up with the neonate to check if they are healthy. Prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was confined exclusively to women, and rigorously excluded men. The expectant mother would invite close female friends and family members to her home to keep her company.