Mcq on biodiversity pdf

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Scientists and others need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, the young inheriting any variations they might have from their parents. Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. No surer criterion for determining species has occurred to me than the distinguishing features that perpetuate themselves in propagation from seed.

At the time, however, it was still widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. By the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. This required a new definition of species. I look at the term species as one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set of individuals closely resembling each otherĀ  It does not essentially differ from the word variety, which is given to less distinct and more fluctuating forms.

The term variety, again, in comparison with mere individual differences, is also applied arbitrarily, and for convenience sake. The type material is usually held in a permanent repository, often the research collection of a major museum or university, that allows independent verification and the means to compare specimens. Books and articles sometimes intentionally do not identify species fully and use the abbreviation “sp. Authors may also use “spp. If scientists mean that something applies to all species within a genus, they use the genus name without the specific name or epithet. When a species identity is not clear a specialist may use “cf.

As further information comes to hand, the hypothesis may be confirmed or refuted. Sometimes, especially in the past when communication was more difficult, taxonomists working in isolation have given two distinct names to individual organisms later identified as the same species. Taxonomists are often referred to as “lumpers” or “splitters” by their colleagues, depending on their personal approach to recognising differences or commonalities between organisms. Research can change the boundaries, also known as circumscription, based on new evidence. Other abbreviations such as “auct.

It is also called a reproductive or isolation concept. It has been argued that this definition is a natural consequence of the effect of sexual reproduction on the dynamics of natural selection. It is difficult to define a species in a way that applies to all organisms. Generally the term includes the unknown element of a distinct act of creation.

The term quasispecies is sometimes used for rapidly mutating entities like viruses. All species definitions assume that an organism acquires its genes from one or two parents very like the “daughter” organism, but that is not what happens in HGT. Species gaps can be verified only locally and at a point of time. One is forced to admit that Darwin’s insight is correct: any local reality or integrity of species is greatly reduced over large geographic ranges and time periods. Ring species thus present a difficulty for any species concept that relies on reproductive isolation. However, ring species are at best rare. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was later formalised as the typological or morphological species concept.

Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or even impossible to test. Later biologists have tried to refine Mayr’s definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. This method was used as a “classical” method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory.

It differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98. Modern approaches compare sequence similarity using computational methods. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to distinguish species suitable even for non-specialists to use.