James Madison, author of Federalist No. 10 addresses the question of how to reconcile citizens with interests contrary to the rights of others or inim
James Madison, author of Federalist No. 10 addresses the question of how to reconcile citizens with interests contrary to the rights of others or inimical to the interests of the community as federalist papers summary pdf whole.
Madison saw factions as inevitable due to the nature of man – that is, as long as men hold differing opinions, have differing amounts of wealth, and own differing amount of property, they will continue to form alliances with people who are most similar to them, and they will sometimes work against the public interest, and infringe upon the rights of others. Thus, he questions how to guard against those dangers. It is titled, “The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection. Thus, Madison saw the Constitution as forming a “happy combination” of a republic and a democracy and with “the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local and particular to the State legislatures” the power would not be centralized, thus making it “more difficult for unworthy candidates to practice the vicious arts by which elections are too often carried. Congress had no power to tax, and as a result was not able to pay debts resulting from the Revolution. Like Washington, Madison felt the revolution had not resolved the social problems that had triggered it, and the excesses ascribed to the King were now being repeated by the state legislatures. May 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation.
Madison believed that the problem was not with the Articles, but rather the state legislatures, and so the solution was not to fix the articles but to restrain the excesses of the states. The principal questions before the convention became whether the states should remain sovereign, whether sovereignty should be transferred to the national government, or whether a settlement should rest somewhere in between. By mid-June it was clear that the convention was drafting a new plan of government around these issues—a constitution. Madison’s nationalist position shifted the debate increasingly away from a position of pure state sovereignty, and toward the compromise. Paul Leicester Ford’s summary preceding Federalist No. September 17, 1787 marked the signing of the final document. 10 first appeared in popular newspapers.
Considering the importance later ascribed to the essay, it was reprinted only on a limited scale. Federalist and Anti-Federalist, saw much wider distribution. On January 1, 1788, the publishing company J. George Hopkins’ 1802 edition revealed that Madison, Hamilton, and Jay were the authors of the series, with two later printings dividing the work by author. In 1818, James Gideon published a third edition containing corrections by Madison, who by that time had completed his two terms as President of the United States. It was much reprinted, albeit without his introduction. Paul Leicester Ford’s 1898 edition included a table of contents which summarized the essays, with the summaries again used to preface their respective essays.
The first date of publication and the newspaper name were recorded for each essay. Of modern editions, Jacob E. Cooke’s 1961 edition is seen as authoritative, and is most used today. The question Madison answers, then, is how to eliminate the negative effects of faction. Madison defines a faction as “a number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community”. He identifies the most serious source of faction to be the diversity of opinion in political life which leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as what regime or religion should be preferred. At the heart of Madison’s fears about factions was the unequal distribution of property in society.