Basic immunology abbas pdf free download

This article is about an aspect of the immune system. The killing activity disappeared basic immunology abbas pdf free download he heated the blood. H

This article is about an aspect of the immune system. The killing activity disappeared basic immunology abbas pdf free download he heated the blood. Heating the serum destroyed its killing activity. Nevertheless, the heat-inactivated serum, when injected into guinea pigs exposed to the cholera bacteria, maintained its ability to protect the animals from illness.

The heat-stable component was responsible for immunity against specific microorganisms, whereas the heat-sensitive component was responsible for the non-specific antimicrobial activity conferred by all normal sera. Ehrlich introduced the term “complement” as part of his larger theory of the immune system. Ehrlich “amboceptors” to emphasise their bifunctional binding capacity: They recognise and bind to a specific antigen, but they also recognise and bind to the heat-labile antimicrobial component of fresh serum. Ehrlich, therefore, named this heat-labile component “complement,” because it is something in the blood that “complements” the cells of the immune system. Ehrlich believed that each antigen-specific amboceptor has its own specific complement, whereas Bordet believed that there is only one type of complement. In the early 20th century, this controversy was resolved when it became understood that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a non-specific way. C3 hydrolysis, foreign material, pathogens, or damaged cells.

C3a and C3b, and causes a cascade of further cleavage and activation events. In the alternative pathway, C3b binds to Factor B. Factor D releases Factor Ba from Factor B bound to C3b. Bb is a protease which cleaves C5 into C5b and C5a. C5 convertase is also formed by the Classical Pathway when C3b binds C4b and C2a.